Westminster Larger Catechism
Q.121. Why is the Word Remember set in the beginning of the fourth commandment?
A. The word Remember is set in the beginning of the fourth commandment [o], partly, because of the great benefit of remembering it, we being thereby helped in our preparation to keep it [p], and, in keeping it, better to keep all the rest of the commandments [q], and to continue a thankful remembrance of the two great benefits of creation and redemption, which contain a short abridgment of religion [r]; and partly, because we are very ready to forget it [s], for that there is less light of nature for it [t], and yet it restraineth our natural liberty in things at other times lawful [v]; that it cometh but once in seven days, and many worldly businesses come between, and too often take off our minds from thinking of it, either to prepare for it, or to sanctify it [w]; and that Satan with his instruments labours much to blot out the glory, and even the memory of it, to bring in all irreligion and impiety [x].
The word Remember is set in the beginning of the fourth commandment [o],
[o] Exodus 20:8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
partly, because of the great benefit of remembering it, we being thereby helped in our preparation to keep it [p],
[p] Exodus 16:23 And he said unto them, This is that which the LORD hath said, To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the LORD: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning.
Luke 23:54 And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on. Ver.56 And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.
compared with Mark 15:42 And now when the even was come, (because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath),
Nehemiah 13:19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day.
and, in keeping it, better to keep all the rest of the commandments [q],
[q] Psalm 92 [title, A psalm for the sabbath-day.]
Compared with Ver.13 Those that be planted in the house of the LORD shall flourish in the courts of our God. And Ver.14 They shall still bring forth fruit in old age; they shall be fat and flourishing;
Ezekiel 20:12 Moreover also I gave them my sabbaths, to be a sign between me and them, that they might know that I am the LORD that sanctify them. Ver.19 I am the LORD your God; walk in my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them; Ver.20 And hallow my sabbaths; and they shall be a sign between me and you, that ye may know that I am the LORD your God.
and to continue a thankful remembrance of the two great benefits of creation and redemption, which contain a short abridgment of religion [r];
[r] Genesis 2:2 And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. Ver.3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.
Psalm 118:22 The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner. Ver.24 This is the day which the LORD hath made; we will rejoice and be glad in it.
Compared with Acts 4:10 Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, even by him doth this man stand here before you whole. Ver.11 This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner.
Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the LORD’s day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,
and partly, because we are very ready to forget it [s],
[s] Ezekiel 22:26 Her priests have violated my law, and have profaned mine holy things: they have put no difference between the holy and profane, neither have they shewed difference between the unclean and the clean, and have hid their eyes from my sabbaths, and I am profaned among them.
for that there is less light of nature for it [t],
[t] Nehemiah 9:14 And madest known unto them thy holy sabbath, and commandedst them precepts, statutes, and laws, by the hand of Moses thy servant:
and yet it restraineth our natural liberty in things at other times lawful [v];
[v] Exodus 34:21 Six days thou shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest: in earing time and in harvest thou shalt rest.
that it cometh but once in seven days, and many worldly businesses come between, and too often take off our minds from thinking of it, either to prepare for it, or to sanctify it [w];
[w] Deuteronomy 5:14 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thou. Ver.15 And remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the LORD thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand and by a stretched out arm: therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day.
Amos 8:5 Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?
and that Satan with his instruments labours much to blot out the glory, and even the memory of it, to bring in all irreligion and impiety [x].
[x] Lamentations 1:7 Jerusalem remembered in the days of her affliction and of her miseries all her pleasant things that she had in the days of old, when her people fell into the hand of the enemy, and none did help her: the adversaries saw her, and did mock at her sabbaths.
Jeremiah 17:21 Thus saith the LORD; Take heed to yourselves, and bear no burden on the sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem; Ver.22 Neither carry forth a burden out of your houses on the sabbath day, neither do ye any work, but hallow ye the sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers. Ver.23 But they obeyed not, neither inclined their ear, but made their neck stiff, that they might not hear, nor receive instruction.
Nehemiah 13 from verse 15 to 23 In those days saw I in Judah some treading wine presses on the sabbath-day [See above in letter b.]
Nehemiah 13:15 In those days saw I in Judah some treading wine presses on the sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the sabbath day: and I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals. Ver.16 There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem. Ver.17 Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the sabbath day? Ver.18 Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the sabbath. Ver.19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day. Ver.20 So the merchants and sellers of all kind of ware lodged without Jerusalem once or twice. Ver.21 Then I testified against them, and said unto them, Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye do so again, I will lay hands on you. From that time forth came they no more on the sabbath. Ver.22 And I commanded the Levites that they should cleanse themselves, and that they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the sabbath day. Remember me, O my God, concerning this also, and spare me according to the greatness of thy mercy.
Westminster Larger Catechism
Q.142. What are the sins forbidden in the eighth commandment?
A. The sins forbidden in the eighth commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required [y], are, theft [z], robbery [a], man-stealing [b], and receiving any thing that is stolen [c]; fraudulent dealing [d], false weights and measures [e], removing landmarks [f], injustice and unfaithfulness in contracts between man and man [g], or in matters of trust [h]; oppression [i], extortion [k], usury [l], bribery [m], vexatious lawsuits [n], unjust inclosures and depopulations [o]; ingrossing commodities to enhance the price [p]; unlawful callings [q], and all other unjust or sinful ways of taking or withholding from our neighbour what belongs to him, or of enriching ourselves [r]; covetousness [s]; inordinate prizing and affecting worldly goods [t]; distrustful and distracting cares and studies in getting, keeping, and using them [v]; envying at the prosperity of others [w]; as likewise idleness [x], prodigality, wasteful gaming; and all other ways whereby we do unduly prejudice our own outward estate [y], and defrauding ourselves of the due use and comfort of that estate which God hath given us [z].
[l] Psalm 15:5 He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor taketh reward against the innocent, etc.
For Further Study:
- The Sabbath and Proletarian Revolution (Deuteronomy 5:12-15) R.J. Rushdoony, www.Chalcedon.edu
- The Sabbath and Satanism (Ezekiel 20:5-20) R.J. Rushdoony
- The Sabbath: Chalcedon Position Paper No. 211 - Rev. R. J. Rushdoony
- Usury and Cosmic Personalism - Rev. R. J. Rushdoony
- God's Work Ethic and Christian Retirement - Curt Lovelace
- Making the Lord Your Habitation - R. J. Rushdoony, Systematic Theology in Two Volumes (Vallecito, CA: Ross House Books, 1994), 1063.
- Francis R. Beattie's The Presbyterian Standards
- James Fisher's Catechism on the Catechism Q. 61
- John Flavel's Exposition of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism (Questions 60 to 62 combined)
- Matthew Henry's A Scripture Catechism in the Method of the Assembly's Q. 61
- Thomas Vincent's The Shorter Catechism Explained from Scripture Q. 61
- Thomas Watson's Body of Divinity
- John Whitecross' The Shorter Catechism Illustrated Q. 61
- James Fisher's Catechism on the Catechism Q. 62
- Matthew Henry's A Scripture Catechism in the Method of the Assembly's Q.62
- Thomas Vincent's The Shorter Catechism Explained from Scripture Q. 62
- John Whitecross' The Shorter Catechism Illustrated Q. 62
- CHAPTER XXI. - Of Religious Worship, and the Sabbath Day - Commentary by Gordon H. Clark
- Chapter XXI. Of Religious Worship, and the Sabbath-Day - Exposition by Robert Shaw
- Chapter 21: Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath-Day - Commentary by A.A. Hodge
8 For if Joshua had given them rest, then He would not afterwards have spoken of another day. 9 There remaineth therefore a rest for the people of God. 10 For he that has entered into His rest, he also hath ceased from his own works, as God did from His. 11 Let us labor therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall according to the same example of unbelief. 12 For the Word of God is living and powerful and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.