[i] Exodus 20:15 Thou shalt not steal.
Westminster Shorter Catechism
Q. 74. What is required in the eighth commandment?
A. The eighth commandment requireth the lawful procuring and furthering the wealth and outward estate of ourselves and others [k].
[k] Genesis 30:30 For it was little which thou hadst before I came, and it is now increased unto a multitude; and the LORD hath blessed thee since my coming: and now, when shall I provide for mine own house also?
1 Timothy 5:8 But if any provide not for his own, and specially for those of his own house, he hath denied the faith, and is worse than an infidel.
Leviticus 25:35 And if thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee, then thou shalt relieve him; yea, though he be a stranger, or a sojourner: that he may live with thee.
Deuteronomy 22:1 Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep go astray, and hide thyself from them: thou shalt in any case bring them again unto thy brother. Ver.2 And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, or if thou know him not; then thou shalt bring it unto thine own house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother seek after it, and thou shalt restore it to him again. Ver.3 In like manner shalt thou do with his ass, and so shalt thou do with his raiment; and with all lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found, shalt thou do likewise: thou mayest not hide thyself. Ver.4 Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ass or his ox fall down by the way, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely help him to lift them up again. Ver.5 The woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment: for all that do so are abomination unto the LORD thy God.
Exodus 23:4 If thou meet thine enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again. Ver.5 If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him; thou shalt surely help with him.
Genesis 47:14 And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought: and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house. Ver.20 And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold every man his field, because the famine prevailed over them: so the land became Pharaoh’s.
Westminster Larger Catechism
Q.141. What are the duties required in the eighth commandment?
A. The duties required in the eighth commandment are, truth, faithfulness, and justice in contracts and commerce between man and man [k]; rendering to everyone his due [l]; restitution of goods unlawfully detained from the right owners thereof [m]; giving and lending freely, according to our abilities, and the necessities of others [n]; moderation of our judgments, wills, and affections concerning worldly goods [o]; a provident care and study to get [p], keep, use, and dispose these things which are necessary and convenient for the sustentation of our nature, and suitable to our condition [q]; a lawful calling [r], and diligence in it [s]; frugality [t]; avoiding unnecessary lawsuits [v], and suretiship, or other like engagements [w]; and an endeavor, by all just and lawful means, to procure, preserve, and further the wealth and outward estate of others, as well as our own [x].
The duties required in the eighth commandment are, truth, faithfulness, and justice in contracts and commerce between man and man [k];
[k] Psalm 15:2 He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart. Ver.4 He that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not.
Zechariah 7:4 Then came the word of the LORD of hosts unto me, saying, Ver.10 And oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, the stranger, nor the poor; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart.
Zechariah 8:16-17 These are the things that ye shall do; Speak ye every man the truth to his neighbour; execute the judgment of truth and peace in your gates: Ver.17 And let none of you imagine evil in your hearts against his neighbour; and love no false oath: for all these are things that I hate, saith the LORD.
For Further Study:
- U.S. Constitution: Article I, Section 10, Clause 1: No State shall ... emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts....
- The Federal War on Gold
- Gold and Freedom
- Organization of Debt into Currency by Charles Holt Carroll, from Hunt's Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review, XLII (April, 1860).
rendering to everyone his due [l];
[l] Romans 13:7 Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.
restitution of goods unlawfully detained from the right owners thereof [m];
[m] Leviticus 6:2-5 If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and lie unto his neighbour in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbour; Ver.3 Or have found that which was lost, and lieth concerning it, and sweareth falsely; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein: Ver.4 Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the lost thing which he found, Ver.5 Or all that about which he hath sworn falsely; he shall even restore it in the principal, and shall add the fifth part more thereto, and give it unto him to whom it appertaineth, in the day of his trespass offering.
Compared with Luke 19:8 And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the LORD: Behold, LORD, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold.
For Further Study:
- Creating Restorative Justice Systems
- Justice that Restores: From Impersonal to Personal Justice
- Restorative Justice and International Human Rights
- Taking the Assets of Criminals to Compensate Victims of Violence: A Legal and Philosophical Approach, [pdf] Journal of Law in Society, vol. 5:229 (2003).
giving and lending freely, according to our abilities, and the necessities of others [n];
[n] Luke 6:30 Give to every man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again. Ver.38 Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again.
1 John 3:17 But whoso hath this world’s good, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him?
Ephesians 4:28 Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.
Galatians 6:10 As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.
End of Lesson, Day 131
More "For Further Study"
- "Abraham was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold" (Genesis 13:2). Abraham: Model of Virtue
- The Pursuit of Limitless Wealth
- The Eighth Commandment: A Politician's Moral Inventory